What is a NAMA and which opportunities does it provide for Viet Nam?
NAMAs refer to any action initiated by the government that reduces emissions in developing and transition countries. Thereby, ́action` includes policies, strategies or preparatory and capacity building for measures which will result in reduced greenhouse gas emissions in the context of sustainable development. Respective initiatives are either focused on one sector, or are conceptualized across sectors for a broader national focus. NAMAs are supported and enabled by technology, financing, and capacity building on the part of industrialized countries and are aimed at achieving an emission reduction relative to a business-as-usual scenario by 2020.
NAMAs can significantly contribute to implement low-carbon development strategies and one country ́s NDC. The UNFCCC categorizes NAMAs in four types: targets, strategies, policy and programs and projects. Thereby, a policy NAMA is more directed towards transformational change, whereas the immediate outcome of a concrete mitigation project might be easier to evaluate.
NAMAS in the Vietnamese context
The Vietnamese government is willing to implement mitigation actions, such as NAMAs, and has encouraged its ministries and sectors as well as provincial governments to develop NAMAs. However, the concept of NAMAs (including MRV) is still new, and institutional arrangements and legal instruments remain challenging for project developers and implementers at various levels. Although Viet Nam has identified several NAMA options in different sectors, barriers and gaps remain, and measures undertaken so far are barely at readiness stage.
Viet Nam has developed and approved a lot of strategies and action plans in the context of climate change and sustainable development recently. In its technical report to the INDC, Viet Nam has determined the relationship of NAMAs, (I)NDCs and the Green Growth Strategy (GGS). Accordingly, NAMAs are considered as short- and medium-term actions which support to operationalize the (I)NDC. The GGS, in turn, is a national long-term strategy for climate-friendly socio-economic growth.
Hence, NAMAs are considered to be specific activities to achieve the more general NDC targets within frameworks of long‐term national plans and strategies in a sustainable manner. From this point of view, NAMAs will continue to be implemented as a part of the NDC after 2020.
NAMAS: A chance for Viet Nam
Significant mitigation action is required in Viet Nam to achieve its climate targets, and to raise ambitions with regard to the forthcoming NDC update. NAMAs can serve as a means to design target-orientated solutions, and to create synergies when tackling climate change mitigation in Viet Nam. In specific, they offer the chance for:
- Financial Support, in particular Access to Climate Finance
- Mobilizing Private Sector Engagement
- Increased International Cooperation
- Setting up a Transparency Framework
- Enhancing Country Ownership of Mitigation Projects
- Achieving Co-Benefits
- Harmonizing Targets in an Efficient Manner