Institutional arrangements for climate change mitigation under the UNFCCC
Viet Nam is a member to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, the government signed it the convention in 1992 and ratified it in 1994). In 2002, the Vietnamese government ratified the Kyoto Protocol as a Non-Annex 1 Party with no obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The National Plan for the Implementation of the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol was approved in 2007, and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) was designated as the National Focal Point for coordination of the implementation.
Viet Nam further submitted its Initial and Second National Communication to the UNFCCC in 2003 and 2010, respectively.
In late 2014, MONRE, in cooperation with other ministries and agencies, completed and submitted the Initial Biennial Update Report (BUR1), which consists of comprehensive information on Viet Nam’s national greenhouse gas inventories, reduction potentials and mitigation options. It also provides information on NAMAs in Viet Nam. This report has been updated by the Second Biennal Update Report (BUR2) in 2017, which presents the latest information on the national climate-related circumstances of Viet Nam, including a national greenhouse gas inventory for the base year of 2013, mitigation actions, financial needs, and technical support and capacity-building.
In September 2015, just before the start of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties in Paris (COP 21), Viet Nam submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the Secretariat.
Viet Nam also ratified the Paris Agreement (PA) on 4 November 2016 to show its commitment in joining global efforts to tackle climate change. Some days earlier, the government approved the Plan for Implementation of the Paris Agreement, which contains 68 tasks on how to fulfill the Paris Agreement and in particular the Vietnamese NDC.
Important Actors in NAMA development and implementation in Viet Nam
In Decree No. 36/2017/ND-CP (Apr 2017), the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) is designated as the national focal agency for the implementation of the UNFCCC, the Kyoto Protocol (KP), the Paris Agreement (PA) and other related treaties. It is also assigned to prepare national climate change reports, conduct periodical GHG emission inventories, and to organize the implementation of the NDC and the NDC revision and update process. MONRE also supports the National Committee on Climate Change (NCCC, an interministerial working group headed by the Prime Minister), through the Standing Office of the NCCC, which is responsible to develop and implement programs, cooperate with other ministries, and monitor and review the implementation of national strategies, programs, action plans and projects.
The Department of Climate Change (DCC) is assigned to replace the former Department of Meteorology, Hydrology and Climate Change (DMHCC) as MONRE’s subordinate agency to support the Minister in state management issues related to climate change (Decision No. 1266 / QD-BTNMT, May 2017). The decision lays out 22 tasks and functions related to climate change mitigation, green growth, NAMAs, the implementation of NDC and the Paris Agreement. DCC also acts as the focal point for implementing the UNFCCC, the KP, the PA, the Designated National Authority for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), for NAMAs and other international climate treaties and agreements to which Viet Nam is a Party to.
For more detailed information please visit the GIZ Recommendation Paper for Institutional Arrangements for NAMA Coordination in Viet Nam
Challenges for NAMA implementation in Viet Nam
The legal framework and institutional setup for climate change mitigation in Viet Nam is still under development. Climate change issues are reflected in different strategies, policies, and legal documents. Viet Nam’s capacity to respond to climate change has been strengthened under these policies and programs, and mainstreaming into sectoral policies has made progress in many cases. However, policy development and institutional capacity needs to be further strengthened for state management, implementation of mitigation actions, resource mobilization, and support provision across national and sub-national levels.