NAMAs in the light of the Paris Agreement
Although there is no explicit indication of the term ´NAMA` in the Paris Agreement (PA), Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions continue to be essential on the way towards low-carbon development. As such, the term ´mitigation actions` is mentioned five times in the PA and its preceding Decision: Most significantly, in the prefix on finance, where it is stated that in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 3 of the Agreement, “…developed countries intend to continue their existing collective mobilization goal through 2025 in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation…”; and in the chapter ´Enhanced Action prior to 2020`, which recognizes “…the social, economic and environmental value of voluntary mitigation actions and their co-benefits for adaptation, health and sustainable development”.
Obviously, the aspect of differentiated ambitions in the light of respective national circumstances is fundamentally anchored throughout the PA, and particularly expressed through the NDC concept. This is exactly what ´national appropriateness` implies. Hence, being considered as a tool to prepare and implement the NDC, which is based on the principle of differentiation, the addition ´nationally appropriate` may have become obsolete. Instead, another additions have gained importance: ´meaningful` mitigation actions, ´voluntary` mitigation actions and ´their co-benefits for adaptation, health and sustainable development`.
This suggests that the NAMA concept continues to play an important role in the international climate context, though it has been differently wrapped in the PA.
What does this mean for Viet Nam?
The Vietnamese government continues to demonstrate its will for meaningful mitigation efforts on the international stage, and it might further reinforce its respective intention by designing a variety of NAMAs or NAMA-related projects. Viet Nam is not only among the countries with the highest GDP growth rate worldwide, but also among those with fastest growing GHG emissions in the region. Increased NAMA efforts turning away from a business-as-usual path would mean to possibly circumvent a carbon lock-in. Combined with the fact that Viet Nam is also among the most vulnerable countries regarding climate change, a sound institutional infrastructure and clear policy signals combined with increased cooperation with donors and other stakeholders would possibly provide a basis for channeling enhanced support into the country.